• wethepeopleofhk

People of Hong Kong make the place!

Updated: Nov 5, 2020


We have undertaken a review of all protests we can find records on since WWII and related underlying political, social, economic, cultural and other issues to find out how we the people of Hong Kong (HK) arrived at this place, at this time!


In summary our key conclusions are (in no particular order):

  1. Currently the majority of HK people are the HK protesters, who, having won November 2019 District Council elections want the Joint Declaration and their 5 demands to be upheld! At WTPOHK we describe this as an indication of the will of HK people - to determine the will we need an MBC referendum.

  2. HK's long term political problem is that post-1997 handover to China the numbers of HK protests and protesters has increased significantly, yet the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and HK government do not act according to the will of the HK people nor HK's obligations! Inspite of the Joint Declaration, ICCPR, UDHR and all other UN obligations CCP and HK government do not hear or respond to the will of the majority of HK people. Unacceptably, inspite of using HK people's Public Purse, CCP and HK government continue doing as they please via an illegitimate Legislative Council which is not practicing universal and equal suffrage!;

  3. HK's long term political crisis is that CCP and HK government is in breach of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong ('Joint Declaration') including HK's UN obligations. Many HK people believe and witness that illegally the CCP and HK government with their rule BY law are now hell bent, no matter the cost, on undermining and destroying the pro-democratic people, the majority of HK people. For example, police use of 'disproportionate force' at peaceful protests! This is a significant change. Up to this point, in general HK people have been relatively satisfied with the British and their rule OF law because HK people had more stability and prosperity;

  4. HK's long term political problem - now a political crisis - is that HK is a feudal Chinese plutocracy in which the minority of elites illegitimately rule over the majority of HK people. The Legislative Council (LegCo) by using 'Functional Constituences' is not governing according to UN obligations including ICCPR and UDHR universal and equal suffrage; nor are the Chief Executives. This problem goes back to 1 July 1997 handover to China, when CCP and HK government 'appointed' a Provisional Legislative Council which did not govern according to the Joint Declaration and UN obligations.

  5. CCP's recent illegal NPC 'National Security Law' for HK is designed to ensure that the current status quo of CCP and HK's Chinese feudal plutocracy is maintained, and CCP's powers under its rule BY law are heightened internationally and in HK in line with its nationalist goals. UN special rapporteurs on HK's National Security Law of 1 September 2020.;

  6. The only way to solve HK's current political crisis is to use the rule OF law to uphold the Joint Declaration! Protesters believe that there are some leading democratic countries - including USA, UK, EU, Australia, etc. that are doing their part to ensure that CCP and HK government abides by the Joint Declaration and the rule OF law. HK must hold universal and equal elections as soon as possible for; a) the Legislative Council which must restructure to remove Functional Constituencies, and; b) in 2022 HK must hold universal and equal elections for the Chief Executive - both of which CCP agreed to in 2007 before suddenly changing their minds which caused the 2014 Umbrella movement (see below);

  7. HK people see no future in an ever-declining HK likely made worse post-2047 when the Joint Declaration terminates and presumably CCP's arbitrary rule BY law takes over. The elephant in the room is 2047;

  8. The people of HK make the place! Since 1 July 1997 HK people have upheld the Joint Declaration and all other HK international treaty obligations. Upon retiring, expatriate HK policeman Martin Purbrick wrote "..the future development of China will not be as bright without the free-thinking HK people who meet adversity with creativity and energy. It is the people of HK who are the future of the country, and no doubt they will show their normal patient resolve to navigate the efforts to suppress them.";

  9. The nationalist CCP, and their minions the HK government and HK elite only want HK the place but not HK people! Once CCP has replaced HK people with oppressed mainland Han Chinese then CCP Emperor Xi Jinping will have what he wants in HK - his version of a prosperous and stable communist HK;

  10. USA no longer gives HK a 'special trade status' - HK is now just another 'dirty' Chinese city. By taking away HK's special trade status America is removing US financial services that underpins China's and HK's economic success! Post 1997 handover to China, the rule OF law, democracy, human rights, social welfare, and future, etc. that the British colonial government provided for HK people has been ship wrecked by the rejection / incompetence, rule BY law, etc. of CCP and HK government;

  11. Since the first HK student protests on HK issues on Christmas Day 1981 key issues include; increase social welfare; provide a better future; post-1997 uphold the Joint Declaration, ICCPR and UDHR universal and equal suffrage elections for the Chief Executive and Legislative Council (LegCo), since 2019 protester's 5 demands;

  12. CCP and HK government does not responsibly and responsively act when the United Nations or members of the international community calls it out - for example, UN special rapporteur letters to China remain unanswered;

  13. As in 1977, HK police by their unsociable behaviour are the cause of a political crisis; HK police are now an armed domestic terrorist militia organization that must be independently investigated, disbanded and reorganized according to the law! HK's last political crisis was in 1977 when armed HK police mutinied against the HK government: they surrounded the head office of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). This 1977 action by the police 'forced' the British Governor to give the police amnesty for their past corruption. In breach of the Joint Declaration since 2019, protesters have witnessed HK become increasingly more like a police state directly controlled by CCP. Just like in the 1970's, since protests started in June 2019 the police are now 'corrupted' because, in addition to illegal unsocial behaviour using brutal 'disproportionate force', it has completely lost its ability to 'police' HK as a community. Since the 2019 protests started the dominant power of the police in a government of unelected bureaucrats who is without its own army is even more evident. Since mass protests began in HK in June 2019, other HK government officials have been notable for their silence while policy on the ground has been in the hands of the police / their masters the CCP. As in 1977, an intervention targetting the police must now take place to change its destructive unsocial behaviour. Once again, we call for an independent Commission of Inquiry into the HK Police Force and the HK government ;

  14. In October 2020 the democratic world's pushback against CCP is not just because of CCP's democratic and human rights abuses in Xinjiang, Tibet, HK, Mongolia, etc. - it is increasingly also about what CCP has done to create and spread coronavirus SARS-COV-2 and the COVID-19 global pandemic that has and will cost so many lives worldwide! Peoples of the world say an 'International independent inquiry into China & World Health Organization WHO on Covid-19 is needed.' CCP and WHO officials must be held accountable for their actions;

  15. We request a MBC multi-option preferential referendum to be held in HK to determine the will of HK people; this referendum could be mandated by the UN. When correctly acted upon this referendum will negate China's breach of the Joint Declaration allowing the Joint Declaration to continue as an international treaty.


6 October 2020 Statement by German Ambassador to UN from 39 countries.


4 June 1989 Tiananmen massacre was the turning point when authoritarian CCP once more regressed and became totalitarian CCP. CCP practices its arbitrary rule BY law which is at odds with the democratic world's rule OF law.


After the Tiananmen massacre an uncaring and greedy democratic West, lead by USA, did NOT fully sanction CCP for the Tiananmen massacre, nor try to ensure that CCP meets all of its UN obligations including the rule OF law, democracy and human rights for its own citizens as well as everyone else on Earth.


By failing to ensure the rule OF law in China the democratic West handed on a plate to CCP the West's wealth, science, technologies, intellectial property, etc.! This has only made the democratic world's problems created by CCP's rule BY law so much worse!


If CCP wants to do whatever it wants then Western democracies must decouple - CCP must NOT be allowed to have it both ways! Western democracies need to ensure that China decouples from CCP; as well as ensure that their countries and multi-lateral institutions decouple from China.



As further background please read our blogs:


These are UN special rapporteur letters to China on current HK protests:


The natural beauty of Hong Kong!



Hong Kong - the place


HK is where East and West sometimes meets, co-exists and occasionally fuses together synergistically making something greater than the sum of the parts. For example, Western allopathic medicine rarely 'meets' traditional Chinese medicine - but, depending upon the patient's understanding of health, both can can meet, co-exist or even synergistically fuse.


Today 'communist HK' is illegally a Chinese Communist Party (CCP) directly governed territory where all of its people and businesses live balancing on the edge of an economic-social-cultural-heritage 'fault line' of CCP's making! CCP's Emperor Xi Jinping on 30 June 2020 installed HK's national security law!


Since 1949 when CCP began its rule over China it has refused to allow HK as a British colony, and post-handover British 1997 the HKSAR, to develop under HK's UN, Joint Declaration and other treaty obligations. The secret history of Hong Kong’s stillborn democracy and FRAUD: CCP thwarted Hong Kong peoples' UN rights to self-determination & independence.


Time line of HK treaties:

  • The signing of the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration on the question of Hong Kong ("Joint Declaration"), HK's Constitution, created the HKSAR on 1 July 1997 for 50 years. When this international treaty naturally terminates on 30 June 2047 China will have full sovereignty without any obligations to UK. Unacceptably to the majority of HK people, CCP is now in breach of the Joint Declaration; this treaty has been illegally terminated by CCP 27 years too early!;

  • After the First Opium War in 1842, under the Treaty of Nanking the British owned in perpetuity Hong Kong Island;

  • In 1860 after the Second Opium War south of Boundary Street the Kowloon peninsula was also owned in perpetuity by the British;

  • In 1898 the British were given a 99 year lease by China for the New Territories. This lease termination on 30 June 1997 triggered the signing of the 1984 Joint Declaration.


Today there are roughy 7.5 million people living in HK - approximately 92% are ethnic Han Chinese. By the end of 1970's roughly 2/3rds of HK people were mainland Chinese refugees - they escaped CCP so they know, and many hate, CCP!


In 1945 WWII ended with Japan surrendering to the Allies - ending Japanese occupation of HK. Soon after the British returned as the colonial power of HK.


China's Civil War started in 1946 and ended in 1949 when CCP defeated the Republic of China's (ROC) Kuomingtang (KMT) who then fled to Taiwan. Mainland Chinese in large numbers from 1945 onwards - including KMT 'Nationalists' - came to HK as refugees escaping from the CCP.


HK's economy started to flourish in the 1960's when HK started manufacturing textiles, electronics, plastic flowers, etc. and exported their products.


During China's Cultural Revolution (1967-76) turmoil from CCP factional in-fighting again resulted in a massive influx of mainland Chinese refugees escaping the CCP.


US President Nixon's 1972 visit to China started the process of normalization of the relationship between China and USA - USA had substantially helped China defeat the Japanese in WWII. In the 1980's HK hitched itself onto China's improved relationship with USA and Deng Xiaoping's 1978 opening of China's economy which created an economic boom - HK manufacturing moved from HK into China. HK has since increasingly become a service economy as an international trade and finance centre.


HK does not have sufficient fresh water to meet the needs of its population so HK purchases 70% of its water from China. Fresh water has always been a strategic problem for HK with CCP at times making threats and taking advantage; for example, the Joint Declaration was signed by the British accompanied by CCP threats that otherwise HK's fresh water supply would be shut off.


Nearly all of HK's fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, etc. comes from China - and anyone who knows China is obviously worried about food security and safety! HK's patriarchial indigenous New Territories Hakka farmers - to the alarm of the rest of HKers - since 1970's have turned themselves and their agricultural lands into property developments and further corrupted HK politics with their pro-CCP Heung Yee Kuk.


Because of its British common law 'rule OF law', HK was once unlike the rest of China which is governed by CCP's arbitrary 'rule BY law'. This was until the 30 June 2020, with an illegal enactment by CCP's National Peoples Congress of HK's national security law - which marked the most serious breach to date of the Joint Declaration.


In response to CCP's breach of the Joint Declaration, US President Donald Trump has cancelled HK's special trade status which has underpinned HK's successful economy for the last 40 years - making HK now just like any other dirty mainland Chinese city!


The only two resources HK has are its people and the rule of law. HK no longer has the rule of law which ended with CCP's illegal annexation of HK. HK people in significant numbers are either leaving or planning to leave HK. HK is a people - not just a place!


The other resource HK has is its prime location at the mouth of the Pearl River delta. However, HK as an international financial centre has little need for ships and an excellent harbour - for years HK's cargo handling has been in steady decline. Guangzhou (Canton) was once the only port in China where Chinese citizens were allowed to trade with foreigners.



There is an illusion amongst 'unaware' people that HK was once a successful example of a 'free market' economy! All Chinese societies are run by triads (i.e. mafia) - and the biggest and best example is China under the CCP!


HK is a feudal Chinese plutocracy. HK government does not meet any of its obligations including the Joint Declaration, its Constitution, and UN obligations for democracy, human rights, etc.


For example, roughly 6 real estate developing families control at least 50% of all HK privately owned assets - this means that CCP only has to control 6 HK families to control HK! HK is the only jurisdiction in the world that a property developer has to pre-pay the Land Premium to the HK government before starting construction. This very high barrier to entry created the private property development cartel as well as expensive, inferior, poor quality design and constructed buildings.


HK has the most expensive real estate in the world and one of the largest gaps between rich and poor. HK government, unsustainably, relies almost entirely upon real estate lease income!


Under the direct control of the CCP the HK government has now - illegally under the Joint Declaration - changed HK's capitalist free-market international financial center economy into one which is 'socialism with Chinese characteristics'. For example, the sweetheart US$5 billion COVID-19 financial bailout for British private company Swire's HK's flagship carrier Cathay Pacific Airways after it was forced to kowtow to CCP over HK protests.


CCP, as exampled by CCP's Huawei, is calling the shots using HK to reel in the West into its business model of corruption and rule BY law - and not the other way around as the democratic West (championed by USA) has always led the democratic world to believe! Hong Kong is now similar to a secretive private Swiss bank for CCP - HK is increasingly where CCP launders its money and launches its global business operations.


After the 1972 US President Nixon visit to China, it was America that took China under its wing into the global economy and multi-lateral institutions such as UN, WTO, WHO, etc. In return USA and the democratic world now faces an increasing competitive (i.e. non-cooperative) and threatening CCP stance.


Now, through HK protests and the COVID-19 global pandemic, the West and most importantly USA witnesses the inevitable unmasking of the world's worst ever totalitarian regime, finding the CCP to be nothing more than a 'paper' tiger!

For years Shanghai and Shenzhen have vied and failed to overtake HK's status as China's finance centre - and as if to spite his own nose, Xi Jinping is cutting it off! In finance it is ALL about the rule of law, trust and the people - which China, under CCP, does not and will not have - at least in the short to medium term!



Suggestion? The British opium trade with China was a terrible and deplorable business / genocide; the UK government needs to recognize, own and then apologize to the people of China (not CCP) for its opium trade with China. Equally, CCP has to recognize, own and apologize to the people of UK for the pain caused by its COVID-19 global pandemic / biological warfare. Reparations anyone? How about an equal swap that equates to no payment?


Drone footage of HK protesters 2019.



Hong Kong - the people


All people in 'Communist Hong Kong' are now under the direct control of Emperor Xi Jinping of CCP, the world's worst ever totalitarian regime:


HK people have covered their legal bases meeting UN obligations ICCPR and UDHR and others:


Because of the large numbers of mainland Chinese refugees arriving in HK, for many years after WWII the primary focus of the British colonial HK government was massive investments in public rental housing for refugees, free education and free healthcare.


Since 1997 handover to China, HK people have not enjoyed the agreed Joint Declaration's 50 years of high degree of autonomy, unchanged lifestyle and an independent judiciary.




The reality of CCP's policy of 'one country, two systems' is that the HK government since 1997 handover to China has become nothing more than an extension of the CCP to be instructed to implement CCP's rule BY law of 'socialism with Chinese characterstics!'


Post 1997 handover the CCP controlled HK government no longer focused on public rental housing, free education and free healthcare! Unacceptably, HK government choose / instructed by CCP to give a free hand to the corrupt CCP and HK elites to enjoy their financial returns of private property development at the expense and well being of the majority of HKers.


A 'civil service' can not exist when there is no civil society under the rule OF law! If there is no 'public service' - i.e. when the public is NOT served according to their will by government employees who receive their salaries from the people's Public Purse - then the public must assume that the public is only there for the personal interests of the 'government employees'! This is the core problem in feudal China under CCP - and now in communist HK - where the 'government employee' is working for their own personal gains and the gains of whoever else they illegally serve such as the CCP, triads, etc!


For example, the fishy tale of 12 Hong Kong activists arrested at sea by China.


The question has been, and will always be, how is CCP getting its corrupt hands on HK's Public Purse! HK has vast wealth - but CCP has even more vast corruption!


Since the 1997 handover to China the HKSAR has never had a CCP 'selected' Chief Executive (CE) which finished a second term! Each CE has, in the eyes of the majority of HK people, been worse than the last. The current HK CE Carrie Lam is the worst so far - considered by HKers to be arrogant and incompetent she only has support of at most 11% of HKers.


Without a strong rule OF law HK will have no international standing as a finance centre. As primarily a service based economy - which has for the last few decades been primarily driven by its success as a financial centre - HK's economic future looks very bleak!


HK government has been increasingly unable to meet its international treaty obligations including those of the United Nations. HK does not even fully comply with ICCPR! A sampling of the recommendations of the various UN Human Rights Committees just shows how out of touch with modern governance best practices HK government has become!


CCP is driven by its own agenda - CCP is calling all the shots in HK.


Summary of review points as follows:

  • (#1-7) total of 7 'disturbances'- includes the 1977 HK police mutiny against British government - during British colonial era 1945-1997 a period of 52 years;

  • (#8-19) total of 11 'disturbances' during CCP colonial era 1998 - October 2020 {date of writing} a period of just 22 years.


Comment:

Why has there has been significantly more protests in roughly 50% less time post-1997 handover to China than there was post-WWII pre-1997 colonial British rule?


We tried to answer this in our Conclusions at the start of this blog: 1967 'riots' went on for 18 months; 2019 anti-extradition law protests are still ongoing since June 2019 now with COVID-19 social distancing regulations and will NOT end until there is at minimum universal and equal suffrage.


Notes on Wikipedia:

  1. In general we find that Wikipedia.org can be informative and helpful as a first go-to for references.

  2. However, we find that Wikipedia is lacking in terms of accurate local context and facts of Hong Kong's political protest events that we have been seeking references to. Therefore, we have obtained sources of local knowledge who have added greatly to Wikipedia's content.

  3. In some instances, for example, Wikipedia article '2019–20 Hong Kong protests' it is clear to us that what is written in this Wikipedia article is not only inaccurate at times, but it is factually incorrect AND it portrays the protesters in a negative light - i.e. that under international law HK people have the right to peaceful protest, assembly, freedom of speach, freedom of press, etc. but this is not explained nor accepted by the writers!

  4. Second paragraph of the introduction says "On 16 June, just one day after the Hong Kong government suspended the [extradition] bill...." WRONG! The 'extradition' bill was NOT suspended on 15 June 2019 because to officially 'suspend' the bill would have required for it to be withdrawn officially inside the Legislative Council. Soon after the violence and illegal action of police on 12 June 2019, details of the full violations of the police were submitted in a 28 June 2019 UN letter sent to China by special rapporteur - and of course CCP never answers to its own loss of face!

  5. The 'bill' in question was in short form referred to in HK as the 'extradition bill'; the protests referred to as 'anti-extradition law' (AEL) BUT never as described in Wikipedia article '2019–20 Hong Kong protests' as the 'Fugitive Offenders amendment bill' because its full title was always referred to as being "Fugitive Offenders and Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Legislation (Amendment) Bill 2019 (2019年逃犯及刑事事宜相互法律協助法例(修訂)條例草案). It's possible this Wikipedia article maybe inaccurate for political reasons. We ask everyone to consider whether this is CCP AND HK GOVERNMENT NARRATIVE.

  6. Having said all this, in general, to get a VERY rough idea of events maybe Wikipedia is okay? Just be aware of who is pushing what narrative!

  7. WTPOHK will continue to push the 'Uphold the Joint Declaration' narrative!

  8. WHAT WE SEE IN WIKIPEDIA ON HK PROTESTS APPEARS TO BE CCP AND HK GOVERNMENT NARRATIVES!


List of HK's protests post-WWII as a British colony:


1). HK 1956 protests


Protests were the result of escalating provocations between pro-Nationalist (KMT) and pro-Communist (CCP) factions in Hong Kong during Double Ten Day, 10 October 1956. 56 deaths were attributed to this 'riot'.



2). HK 1966 Star Ferry riots


These were the first disturbances in the 1960's and were over rising fares of the Star Ferry.



3). HK 1967 riots


These disturbances began when internal factional conflicts within CCP caused the Cultural Revolution 1967-1976. Pro-communist lefists in HK challenged British rule; some of whom, despite killing HK policemen, have since the 1997 handover to China been treated by the HK government as heroes. The HK 1967 riots ended after 18 months with 52 fatalities.



4). Defend Diaoyutai Islands campaigns of 1970


Wikipedia

In 1970, the American government returned to Japan the sovereignty of Ryukyu Islands and Diaoyutai Islands (known as the Senkaku Islands to Japan). The act stirred up campaigns for defending the Diaoyutai Islands among Chinese societies all around the world.[citation needed] The "Hong Kong Federation of Students" (香港專上學生聯會) requested a protest at Victoria Park in Causeway Bay on 7 July 1971. Having been frightened by the 1967 riots,[citation needed] the police tried to prevent the protest. Unnecessary violence erupted,[citation needed] leading to the arrests of students. The media criticised the violation of democracy.[citation needed] The British police officers involved were sent back to the UK and went unpunished.[citation needed] Protests concerning the defence of Diaoyutai Islands continued to be held the following months.


Note: We have been unable to find any further information.



5). HK Police Force mutiny of 1977


What is NOT included in all lists of protests we have seen to date, including on Wikipedia, is the inclusion of the HK Police Force (HKPF) mutiny of 1977 when the police, armed with guns, surrounded the ICAC headquarters and demanded the HK government offices of the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) be disbanded! The British Governor had to personally intervene and gave amnesty to the police for all previous crimes of corruption.


Wikipedia

In the 1970s, corruption was a way of life in Hong Kong, being the norm in all government departments. Policemen would often extract bribes (popularly called "tea fee") before they investigated a crime, as did firemen before they rescued people and put out fires. Many Chinese detective superintendents amassed incredible wealth from their corrupt dealings with triads and corporations. Their names have been seared into the memories of the older generations, their stories adapted into several popular movies such as To be Number One (跛豪) in 1991. That is not to say British officers were entirely clean in their dealings.


In 1974, Hong Kong Governor Murray MacLehose, realising the seriousness of the problem, founded the Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC). The investigations and arrests of many police officers created a furore among the police, who protested against the ICAC and even tried to overrun the headquarters in one protest.


The Governor, concerned to avoid a possible police strike or even rebellion, at last issued a pardon, preventing arrests in cases committed before 1977. However, the pardon did not extend to higher-level detective superintendents. These high-level Chinese officers, famous for their riches, left for exile to Taiwan, which had no extradition treaty with Hong Kong. In time, the efforts of the ICAC changed the habits of an entire population and turned Hong Kong into one of the least corrupt cities in the world.


Lessons from 1970s Hong Kong: the danger of unchecked police powers, and how a judge-led inquiry and an amnesty can work. Three lessons from 1977 police mutiny [By Philip Bowring]:

  1. They showed the dominant power of the police in a government of unelected bureaucrats and without its own army. In HK over the past four months [since 2019 protests began], other officials have been notable for their silence while policy on the ground has been in the hands of the police

  2. Shows the role of official, preferably judge-led, inquiries with broad remits and powers to subject the government and other players to scrutiny. They take time, which allows tempers to cool

  3. An amnesty can work. It was humiliating for [Governor] MacLehose to wipe the slate clean of serious crimes carrying long jail sentences for senior policemen, and many of the rank and file. But the [1977] amnesty enabled continuity in the police force while making it clear that the ICAC would keep a close watch, particularly to prevent the re-emergence of organised corruption.


6). Christmas Day 1981 and New Years Day 1982


There were 'disturbances' by HK youth on Christmas Day 1981 and New Years Day 1982. These disturbances were the first since WWII which were about HK social welfare issues and not about CCP or China. These disturbances changed HK government policies towards youth - the HK government increased spending on welfare. Two other disturbances in 1982 and 1984 were ignited by football fans and a tax on taxis.




7). HK protests 4 June 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre by the PLA


The 4 June 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre by the PLA of this student movement was by far the most significant recent political event in China and the last time that large numbers of Chinese citizens across China protested and demanded politicial reforms.


CCP must come clean about 1989 June 4 Tiananmen Square massacre

HK annually holds a 4 June Tiananmen Massacre memorial.


HK people were big supporters of the 1989 Tiananmen Square student movement with 1.5 million HK people protesting in support in HK on 21 May 1989. This was HK's largest pro-democracy protest until the 16 June 2019 anti - extradiation law protest with 2 million protesters.


Professor Cai Xia refered to 4 June 1989 Tiananmen massacre as being the moment when CCP's authoritarianism turned to totalitarianism. CCP's failure to politically reform and its return to totalitarianism is a movement in the wrong direction for the world, as well as HK people living under the terms of the Joint Declaration.


In many ways all HK protests since 4 June 1989 can be linked back to CCP's failure to reform as demanded in protests across China leading up to the 4 June 1989 Tiananmen massacre.


Until CCP comes clean about the 1998 Tiananmen massacre all Chinese communities and everyone in the world is unable to move forwards.


The world needs to know and understand the real face of CCP - so everyone can know their own face and decide if they want to live in a world with CCP's rule BY law or the democratic rule OF law!


The origins of the 1989 Tiananmen massacre has its roots in the 5 April 1976, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China "official" mourning of the death of Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. This lead to student protests lead by liberal activist Fang Lizhi starting in 1986 in cities across China culminating in the Tiananmen massacre on 4 June 1989.


CCP first tried to deny that anything had happened in Tiananmen Square, despite live TV footage from visiting international media outlets proving otherwise. There were reform protests in many cities across China, perhaps involving millions of people. CCP stamped down hard and wiped out all dissent. How many people died remains unknown; a 2017 BBC article estimated 10,000 people died in Beijing alone.


By 1989 the USSR was financially bankrupt from competing with American in a nuclear arms race. Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost and Perestroika were introduced starting in 1985 to open up the USSR to much needed political reforms which took place without bloodshed. USSR communists, starting with Poland in 1989 were eventually overthrown. USSR disbanded into its separate countries and later, starting in 1991, democracy was installed across the old USSR.


Soviet communists financed Chinese youth in their CCP revolution in China - which is why CCP fears youth and foreigners.


By June 1989 CCP leaders should have been open to political reform, a multi-party system and democracy - which is what Russia's Mikhail Gorbachev did! However, CCP ideology is entirely different from the Russia Communists - CCP's only goal is to stay in power in China no matter what happens!


What remains today in post-1989 Tiananmen massacre China is a blockage of the natural development of a democratic China. Democracy in China started with the 1911 Xinhai Revolution which overthrew the Qing dynasty and formed the Republic of China (ROC) founded by Sun Yet-sen.


Almost as if the Qing dynasty had never ended in 1912, today China under one party rule of the CCP is stuck in a time warp as a feudal Chinese plutocracy! For example, China is one of 5 permanent members of the United Nations yet its own citizens do not enjoy the benefits of UN obligations including democracy and human rights.


Increasingly China is unacceptable to the democratic countries of the world who use the rule OF law, as do most of nations that dominate the world's economy. CCP can not be trusted by anyone to perform to any statement, agreement nor undertaking that they make! This is because China under CCP uses its arbitrary rule BY law.


The Tiananmen massacre, coming just four years after 1984 UK and China signed the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong, meant that there was great concern in the UK government if CCP would perform according to this international treaty! CCP has not performed!



List of HK's protests post-1997 handover to China:


Since 2003 every year 1 July protests (七一大遊行) of HK's "reunification" with China has been the day to protest by marching against CCP! The organizer is the Civil Human Rights Front (CHRF).


HK's annual 1 July pro-democracy protest list with full details.



8). 1 July 2003 anti-Article 23 protest


This CHRF organized protest march drew large public attention by opposing the legislation of Basic Law Article 23 also known as National Security (Legislative Provisions) Bill 2003. The 2003 protest, with 500,000 marchers, was the second-largest protest seen in Hong Kong since the 1997 handover to China; the largest protest was 21 May 1989 pro-democracy protest by 1.5 million protesters in support of the 1989 Tiananmen Square student movement; this 2003 1July protest march was to-date the largest protest on HK political issues. This protest eventually led in 2005 to the resignation of HK's first Chief Executive Tung Chi Wah mid-way through his second term.


Post-2003 1 July HK marches have been organised every year to demand greater democracy, for universal and equal suffrage, rights of minorities, protection of freedom of speech, and a variety of other political concerns.


4 December 2005, Causeway Bay protest. Coutesy of Wikipedia

9). 4 December 2005 democracy march


On 4 December 2005 an estimated 250,000 HK people demanded democracy calling on the HK government to ensure HK complies with ICCPR and UN UDHR article 21.3 'universal and equal suffrage.' The protesters demanded the right to directly elect the Chief Executive (CE) and all seats in the Legislative Council (LegCo). They also urged the government to abolish the appointed seats of the District Councils, in response to the limitations of the government's reform proposal. The protest was organised by the Civil Human Rights Front and pro-democracy lawmakers. It was rumoured that CCP was offering universal and equal suffrage for CE elections to be held latest by 2017.



10). 2010 Hong Kong democracy protests


The democracy movements of 2010 can be seen as a precursor to the events of the 2014 Umbrella Revolution:


11). 2011 - 2012 'Occupy Central'


This was an occupation protest that took place in Central, Hong Kong from 15 October 2011 to 11 September 2012. Occupy Central, organized by the international Occupy movement which is not linked to the 2013 Occupy Central with Love and Peace.


The Occupy Central occupation camp was set up at a plaza beneath the HSBC headquarters. On 13 August 2012, the High Court granted an injunction against the continuation of the protest, and ordered the occupants to leave by 9pm on 27 August. But protesters defied the order and remained in place until 15 days after the deadline, when court bailiffs were sent to evict the occupants. Ending on 11 September 2012, the movement remains one of the lengthiest Occupy movements in the world.



12). 2012 Kong Qingdong incident


In January 2012, Peking University professor Kong Qingdong made televised remarks suggesting that many Hong Kong people were disloyal to China and still harboured a colonial mentality. At the time, anti-Mainland Chinese sentiment in Hong Kong had been growing because of the large influx of mainland Chinese mothers arriving in Hong Kong to give birth, largely for their children to receive right of abode in Hong Kong and the social services that came with it. Incident lasted 21 January 2012 – late February 2012.


Scholarism. Courtesy of Wikipedia

13). 2012 EDB's attempt to introduce CCP's mainland 'Moral and National Education' into HK schools


'Moral and national education' (MNE), was initially known as 'Moral and civic education' (MCE), was a school curriculum proposed by the HK government's Education Bureau (EDB) in 2012.


In 2012 the realities of the CCP and HK government forcing a mainland Communist Chinese curriculum on HK students studying in HK public funded schools and of HK people's pushback is a good example of the realities of how CCP and the HK government has breached the Joint Declaration and the legal rights of parents and children to education!


Chinese Communist Parasites (CCP) fear that young people will overthrow them!


HK government's 'Moral and Civic Education' (MCE) was one of the four key tasks in the 2001 curriculum reform undertaken by the Education and Manpower Bureau (superseded by the Education Bureau in 2007), and its framework was revised by the Education Bureau in 2008.


On 13 October 2010, Chief Executive Donald Tsang stated in the "Policy Address 2010 – 2011" that 'moral and national education' would replace MCE to"strengthen national education". The government planned to introduce the new subject in primary schools in 2012 and secondary schools in 2013, and carried out a four-month consultation in 2011.


Secondary School student activist Joshua Wong and other students formed "Scholarism" in May 2011. At the height of these protests, 120,000 students and members of the public attended demonstrations.


In August 2012 members of Scholarism launched an occupation protest at the HK government headquarters to force the government to retract its plans to introduce "Moral and National Education" as a compulsory subject. Fifty members occupied the public park beneath the government offices, and three of the protesters began a hunger strike. The protest lasted until September 2012.


Protests forced the HK government to retract its plans to introduce "moral and national education" indefinetely as a compulsory subject in schools.



14). 2012 - 2015 Anti-parallel trading protests


Whilst never being large protests these were significant community issues with demonstrations held in Tuen Mun, Sheung Shui and Yuen Long. The issue of parallel trading was later merged by communities into the ongoing 2019 anti-extradition law protests.



15). 2013 HK dock strike


The 2013 HK dock strike was a 40-day labour strike at the Kwai Tsing Container Terminal. It was called by the Union of Hong Kong Dockers (UHKD), an affiliate of the Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions (HKCTU) on 28 March 2013, against contracting companies to whom workforce management had been out-sourced by the Hongkong International Terminals Ltd. (HIT), subsidiary of Hutchison Port Holdings Trust (HPHT), which is in turn owned by Hutchison Whampoa Ltd (HWL), flagship company of Li Ka-shing, Hong Kong's richest man. The strike workers demanded better pay and working conditions.


The strike ended on 6 May 2013 when the strikers accepted the offer of 9.8% pay rise. It was the longest running industrial action in Hong Kong in years. Public support and media attention on the strike were unprecedented in the city's history. Some observers marked this as the rejuvenation of political engagement.



Umbrella movement. Admiralty 10 October 2014. Courtesy of Wikipedia

16). 2014 Hong Kong class boycott campaign of 22-26 September 2014


This protest was immediately preceeded and is linked to the 2014 Umbrella movement which started on 26 Septmber 2014.


The '2014 Hong Kong class boycott campaign', also known as '922 Class Boycott' and '926 Class Boycott,' was a student strike protesting CCP's 31 August 2014 Standing Committee of the National People's Congress's restrictions on the nomination system 2014 - 2015 Hong Kong Electoral Reform for the 2016 Legislative Council (LegCo) and 2017 election of the Chief Executive.


On 31 August 2014 CCP reneged on its 2007 promise to HK people of universal and equal suffrage starting with these two elections - this is why students protested!


The protest campaign, jointly organised by the Hong Kong Federation of Students and Scholarism, was participated in by university students from 22 to 26 September and later also by secondary school students on 26 September.


'HK Federation of Students' General-Secretary Alex Chow stated HKFS demanded the HK government to:

  1. Establish civil nomination as a valid nomination method for the 2017 Chief Executive election;

  2. Start to reform of the Legislative Council (LegCo), abolishing all functional constituency seats;

  3. Make an official apology to the Hong Kong people, and withdraw the unjust resolution on electoral reform;

  4. Otherwise, principal officials responsible for the electoral reform including CY Leung, Carrie Lam, Rimsky Yuen and Raymond Tam should be held accountable and resign.


17). 2014 Umbrella movement started on 26 September 2014.


The 2014 Umbrella movement (雨傘運動) was the direct result of the CCP controlled National Peoples Congress Special Committee (NPCSC) decision on 31 August 2014 which reneged on CCP's 2007 promise to HK people to allow universal and equal suffrage for 2017 Chief Executive elections and for 2016 Legislative Council elections. CCP decision was for 'selection committees' NOT universal and equal suffrage as previously agreed in 2007.


The 2007 agreement CCP with the Democratic Party, proposed by the Democratic Party, effectively 'silenced' the pro-democracy parties for 10 years in return for an agreement on 2017 as the date of implementaion of universal and equal suffrage elections for Chief Executive and 2016 for the Legislative Council. Once again CCP proved it can not be trusted to perform according to an agreement!


Because of CCP reneging on its promises for universal and equal suffrage elections, the Umbrella movement protests began on 26 September 2014 which became a 79-day occupation of parts of HK.


Scholarism, the Hong Kong Federation of Students, Occupy Central with Love and Peace (OCLP) were the groups principally driving the demands for the rescission of the NPCSC decision. There was some internal political pushing and shoving going on between the students and OCLP - with students effectively overtaking the protest.


Since the start of the 2014 protests, movement activists have complained of harassment from political opponents "alarmingly similar to the way mainland Chinese activists and their families have long been targeted" and have been prosecuted and jailed for their participation in acts of protest. CCP was directly showing its hand in HK protests in 2014!


The Occupy movement did at least spark further debate on electoral reform in HK, however there was much disagreement on all sides on an acceptable way forward. On 18 June 2015, the Legislative Council (LegCo) rejected the government's electoral reform proposal by 28 votes to 8. This was a massive loss in LegCo, supposedly HK's democratically elected body (which it is not) where the HK elites as a minority hold the majority of seats!


The CCP's response was, through its National People's Standing committee (NPC) to intervene in HK affairs. Since NPC is the supreme legislation body of China this meant that LegCo's failure to pass any electoral reform had no effect on how they acted. They issued their own interpretation of the HK Basic Law, further cementing the status quo, rather than setting in motion any move towards the greater democracy promised the SAR.


We contest that NPC has NO right to make any such interpretations, because under the Joint Declaration it was agreed there will be no changes for 50 years.


So much for HK's 'high degree of autonomy' under the Joint Declaration! So much for HK peoples ICCPR and UDHR human rights!


It should be noted that the NPC interventions in HK, their "interpretation" of the Basic Law (of which there have been several), are part of the erosion of the SAR's autonomy. In the light of the imposition by CCP of National Security Legislation in 2020, it seems fair to say that the NPC interpretations which they got away with, were the thin edge of the wedge leading to the current and complete annexation of HK by the CCP.


After the end of the Umbrella movement the HK government, using outdated colonial era legislation 'Public Order Ordinance' which does not comply with ICCPR nor UDHR, prosecuted leaders and protesters alike. So much for HK's common law system!




18). 2016 Mongkok attack and entrapment by police in Mongkok, Chinese Lunar New Year 8 February 2016.


Wikipedia (copied from Wikipedia - please see our Notes below - THIS IS THE CCP AND HK GOVERNMENT NARRATIVE!)


'Civil unrest' occurred in Mong Kok, Kowloon, Hong Kong on the night of 8 February 2016 until the following morning.


The incident escalated from the HK government's crackdown on unlicensed street hawkers during the Chinese Lunar New Year holidays. Eventual violent clashes broke out between police and protesters, resulting in injuries on both sides - protesters contend that the violence is from the police.


The Hong Kong government has classified the 'violent incident' as a 'riot' (旺角暴動). (See our Notes below).


According to UN special rapporteurs the police used 'disproportionate force.'


Some media outlets and social media platforms have opted for calling the event the "Fishball Revolution" (魚蛋革命), in reference to fishballs, a popular Hong Kong street food.


Our Notes:

  1. HK STREET CULTURE: In general HK people love and miss traditional HK Chinese street culture offered by street hawkers! Since the 1980's, HK street life has been killed off by HK government in the name of hygiene, food safety, consumer protection, etc. Mostly landlords and the HK government benefit from the death of HK street culture - HK people do not benefit! In the last few years the only time the streets came alive with street culture is during the Chinese Lunar New Year when the HK government 'relaxes its enforcement' to give the people a break so they can enjoy and binge on fishballs! It is therefore sacreligious that the police try to shut down these annual street events! This is the deliberate entrapment of the local Mongkok community! Mongkok is very much a rebel democratic stronghold in Kowloon - so much so that CCP discriminates against them and does not allow them to have their own District Council!

  2. 'RIOTING': The only reason why HK government and police call a peaceful protest a 'riot 'is because they want to scare everyone in order to control the population! The narrative shared with CCP is that HK protesters are violent and they are trying to harm China and Chinese people and they must therefore be taken down! All this makes for TV coverage which is used in China by CCP.

  3. The Police charge of 'rioting' is an example of HK colonial era legislation which does NOT comply with ICCPR and is therefore wrongly applied - similar to the infamous "Public Order Ordinance" (POO) used against everyone for everything! If found guilty of rioting the prison term can be as long as 10 years.

  4. IN HK PROTESTS, MOSTLY IT IS THE POLICE WHO ARE VIOLENT: To date despite 10,000 arrests of citizens there has been NO arrest nor charges of police!


19). 2019 - 2020 HK anti-extradition bill protests


List of protests:

March - June 2019 protests list

July 2019 protests list

August 2019 protests list

September 2019 protests list

October 2019 protests list

November 2019 protests list

December 2019 protest list

January 2020 protestst list

February 2020 protests list

March 2020 protest list

April 2020 protest list

May 2020 protest list

June 2020 protest list

July 2020 protest list

August 2020 protest list

September 2020 protest list



For more information on HK protests please read the views of United Nations (UN) special rapporteurs:



OUR PERSONAL ACCOUNTS


What has always been difficult to recognize and then to fully take onboard is the sheer callousness and deceipt of senior HK government officials - in particular those of Chief Executive Carrie Lam! The problem is that they have not yet reached the bottom of their pit of despair! So this is what the Chinese elites do to their own people!


For example; The case of 12 HK protesters 'arrested at sea' supposedly trying to escape to Taiwan appears to be an elaborate premeditated entrapment by the HK police! This case could bring down Carrie Lam, the HK government and also Xi Jinping and the CCP - or at least be a major contributor to their collective final demise.



The single most important element of this protest movement for HKers has always been the unity and relationship between HK protesters.



In 2019 HK pro-democratic supporters had finally come together to support each other to grow HK as a community upholding the Joint Declaration! HK protests have accomodated people of all ages, race, religion, language, sexuality, etc. - including whole families with young children in prams on long protest marches!


Massive peaceful protest marches started against HK Chief Executive Carrie Lam's proposed anti-extradition bill on Saturday 9 June 2019 when 1 million HK people marched from Causeway Bay to Central Government Offices, Central, HK.


Still Carrie Lam refused to officially withdraw the extradition bill in LegCo!


In the early days before mass arbitrary arrests, protesters took it upon themselves to keep everything clean - including cleaning up after protests, bagging trash, etc. HK protesters are some of the most polite in the world - there has never been any looting.


Because Carrie Lam had decided on a second reading of the bill (which meant the bill was being fast tracked) in the Legislative Council (LegCo), on 12 June protesters surrounded the LegCo building so nobody could enter the building and as a result the bill could not be read!