Mandarin class destroyed China and is now destroying HK
The current situation in Hong Kong (HK) has its roots in Chinese culture, Confucianism and history.
The Portuguese were the first to refer to a Chinese official as a "mandarin." The word hails from the Portuguese word "mandarium", which developed from Sanskrit "mantrin," a word for "counselor." Mandarins were promoted by successfully completing the imperial Chinese examination system, which was primarily based on the teachings of Confucian texts.
1. The delightful book 'Tales of Old Hong Kong' by Derek Sandhaus has written on page 10 (quote with bold format added)
'Never to be Relinquished'
From An Aide-deCamp's Recollections of Service in China by Arthur Cunynghame, 1844.
"It struck me at the time, and circumstances have since borne me out, that we should never again relinquish this little spot; for however adverse our government might be to any territorial aggrandizement, it seemed perfectly requisite for us to possess some portion of land, neighbouring the continent, where our own laws should be enforced, free from the chicanery and grasping insolence of the mandarins, and which, in case of any future trouble, might act as a place of future refuge to our shipping, and a secure retreat to our authorities, until such a force should arrive as would compel the Chinese authorities to respect the laws of civilized nations.'
Events post 1 July 1997 handover of Hong Kong (HK) illustrate the 1844 words '..free from the chicanery and grasping insolence of the mandarins...' to be remarkably accurate because todate '...such a force should arrive as would compel the Chinese authorities to respect the laws of civilized nations...' has not happened - hence HK is now yoked by CCP's unconstitutional 'national security law' and its mandarins of HK elites and mainland Chinese commie cadres !
2. Written using references from Wikipedia and Gale.com : 'The Chinese Maritime Customs Service', 1854–1949 was a Qing Government body that employed foreigners in senior positions to operate its Maritime Customs Service.
Technically, the role of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service was limited to insuring the accurate assessment of Customs duties (taxes on imports and exports). However, over time, it became involved in many activities including the maintenance of harbors and lighthouses, the payment of foreign loans, the preparation of a very wide range of published reports, and the provision of technical assistance to the Chinese Government. Customs officials were often involved in diplomatic discussions and served as informal intermediaries between Chinese officials and foreign representatives.
The Chinese Maritime Customs Service assessed the taxes owed on imports and exports carried on foreign ships, but did not actually collect the taxes, which were instead paid to Chinese customs banks. This separation of the role of assessment and collection of customs revenues helped to minimize opportunities for corruption. The Customs Service reported actual assessments to the Zongli Yamen in Beijing, insuring that the central government had a stronger control over customs revenues than over other taxes.
Perhaps, because the Qing government did not trust the Mandarin class officials to corruption-free professionally operate China's Maritime Customs Service they used foreigners in senior positions. The Qing Emperors, like Emperors before them and CCP since, had great difficulty in getting paid taxes due to them because of the corruption of the 'mandarin' class government officials.
3. Civil Service of the People's Republic of China (PRC)
History of PRC Civil Service
A professional corps of dedicated bureaucrats, akin to a modern civil service, has been an integral feature of governance in Chinese civilization for much of its history. Part of the motivation was ideological; Confucian teaching discouraged overly involved, warlike, and rowdy rulers alike, making the delegation of legislative and executive authority particularly necessary. During the Zhou dynasty (c. 1046 – 256 BC), records show that kings would send edicts encouraging local officials to identify promising candidates for office in the capital. This practice was intensified under Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141 – 87 BC), who standardized the selection process with the addition of question-and-answer elements on classic texts judged by a panel of scholars. This helped lay the groundwork for the Imperial examination system that would be formed under the short-lived Sui dynasty before being widely adopted thereafter. The examination system and the bureaucracy it engendered would remain in place in some form until the dissolution of the Qing dynasty in 1911.
The People's Republic of China did not initially maintain a formal civil service like other countries of the era. As the CCP gained ground in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang (KMT), it instead used dedicated Party cadres to oversee and administer territories it took over. The CCP, at the time of its victory in 1949, faced a serious shortage of qualified personnel to the fill over 2.7 million public positions needed to govern the country that had previously been occupied by KMT-affiliated officials, some of whom the Party had to allow to continue to work due to lack of suitable replacements. By the mid-1950s, China had developed a nomenklatura system modeled on the Soviet Union; there was no civil service independent of the ruling party.
Reform of PRC Civil Service
Following the death of Mao Zedong and the rise of reformist Deng Xiaoping, efforts began to change the cadre system after the discord of the Cultural Revolution so that the Party would be able to effectively carry out the modernization of China. Reforms beginning in 1984 did not decrease the approximately 8.1 million cadre positions across China, but began to decentralize their management to authorities at provincial and local levels.
Zhao Ziyang, elected General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party in 1987, sought to transform the cadre system into a more independent body resembling a civil service. The civil service not completely subservient to the CCP, and thus reform the relationship between the Party and the Chinese state. In the aftermath of the [failed] 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, Zhao and his allies lost their influence among Party elite and the civil service reform project was denounced by remaining leaders. Zhao's proposals were subsequently heavily modified and implemented as the "Provisional Regulations on State Civil Servants" in 1993, albeit on a much less comprehensive scale. Nevertheless, the Provisional Regulations established the first formal civil service in China since the founding of the People's Republic.
China's Civil Service today
The definition of civil servant (Chinese: 公务员; pinyin: gōngwùyuán), a term formally codified in the 2006 Civil Service Law is often ambiguous in China. Most broadly, civil servants in China are a subset of CCP cadres, the class of professional staff who administer and manage Chinese government, party, military, and major business institutions. More specifically, the term denotes public employees in higher positions of authority; according to Yuenyuen Ang, they "form the elite strata of functionaries in the party-state hierarchy", in contrast to shiye renyuan (事业人员) or 'shiye' personnel, who are also public employees but are not considered gongwuyuan.
The definition of the civil service differs from that of many western countries. Civil servants are "the managers, administrators and professionals who work for government bodies," including leadership such as the Premier, state councillors, ministers, and provincial governors, among others. It excludes manual workers and many other types of cadre, such as those employed in public service units such as hospitals, universities, or state-owned enterprises, even though those positions are also paid and managed by the government. While not strictly part of the civil service, the judiciary is governed by the same personnel arrangements as the civil service.
4. HK's evolving Civil Service
Upon the passing of the National Security Law in HK, an Oath-taking / Declaration Requirement for Civil Servants in communist HK was established.
Informally HK's 'Administrative Officer Party' ('AO Party') is the mandarin's 'political' party owned by HK's rulers the CCP
The AO Party is arguably the largest and most powerful political party in HK. It is not a formalized political party as those in the West might expect. The party of the mandarins that runs and therefore substantially benefits from HK acts as the 'supervisor' of the common people. Like all bodies in communist HK today (DAB, etc), including humans, the AO Party belongs to HK's rulers, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
The HK government is a monolithic power structure that includes a non-independent judiciary.
Donald Tsang, who subsequently spent time in HK prison for corruption, was the first AO to be selected by CCP as Chief Executive : The second (out of 4) is the incomparable, incompetent encumbent Carrie Lam - may she remain in office as long as possible because she is doing a great job of bringing down CCP!
The Chief Executive is not included in HK's 'Bribery Ordinance', making the Chief Executive about the law, undoubtedly a status that CCP values as a mafia organization : There is no rule OF law in HK!
Hong Kong's civil service is grossly over-compensated for their 'labour' to the tune of earning an incredible 300%+ what they would be paid in the private sector! The rationale by the British colonialists was to overpay its HK civil service, and then to ensure they are not corrupt by installing the ICAC. However, now the ICAC has had both of its wings clipped the civil servants are running amok with their scams - they need to come down to Earth with a thump and be paid 1/3rd of what they are now getting!
Emperor Xi Jinping wants HK to be run by patirots : It is only a matter of time before the HK Chief Executive is a mainland Chinese CCP official.
CCP please answer the following UN letters sent to you:
Please read our related blogs:
Happy 100th Birthday CCP 2171 : CCP's day of reckoning
HK's Court of Public Opinion
There's no denying the elephant in the room
CCP and Bauhinia Party will not succeed long term in controlling HK!
References: 'Time to replace Hongkongers with Mainlanders'｜Stephen Vines (Apple Daily, 1 February 2021)
Editorial: 'Starry Lee’s suggestion to wreck Hong Kong' | Apple Daily HK (Apple Daily, 1 February 2021)
'Behind the curtain: Wrestle between pro-establishment camp and Carrie Lam to get Beijing embroiled' (Apple Daily, 19 December 2020)