BLM and Hong Kong's new social contract
Updated: Jun 23, 2020
Myths are collective dreams - these are the folk lore, stories and tales that psychologically help us to live out our physical lives on Earth. In Hong Kong (HK) for decades the majority of people have been seeking and collectively dreaming of a high degree of autonomy, the rule of law, an independent judiciary, democracy, human rights as agreed in the Joint Declaration - HK's myth! There are Chinese and Western myths being played out.
HK is the cross roads where authoritarianism and democracy are forced to directly cross paths - little wonder there is so much conflict! We invite you to read this blog more than once and to forward it to your friends in solidarity.
Black Lives Matter (BLM) and Hong Kong (HK) protests are structurally identical - leaderless, autonomous cells, strong ethos of right and wrong, inter-dependency, democracy, human rights including no discrimination. Both movements are based on and bound together in a new global social contract.
The difference is that USA already is a working democracy with human rights - this is what HK people were guaranteed for 50 years under the Joint Declaration which has been denied to them since 1997 by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP)!
In addition to breaching the Joint Declaration CCP has committed fraud against HK people by not allowing HK people their fundamental UN human rights of self determination and independence! The core issue is ICCPR article 1 "All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development."
Hong Kong's (HK) new social contract is now being created, promoted and used by HK protesters based upon the Joint Declaration.
October 2019 Hong Kong protester's banner says it all!! Love and light - live and let live!
The new HK social contract - the BLM social contract - the global social contract - includes amongst other issues HK protesters' participation, and input from global movements such as BLM for justice, no police brutality and no discrimination.
Malcolm Gladwell's "Principles of Legitimacy" applies to social contracts (see below, Trevor Noah): 1) We have to agree on Principles; 2) We have to agree who enforces the Principles and will do so fairly; 3) We have to agree that everyone in society has to be treated fairly according to those principles.
HK has Legislative Council elections in September 2020 - which is why both sides feel so much pressure now! The ruling minority (CCP, elites and pro-Beijing camp) do not allow, nor intend to allow, HK to be governed according to the Joint Declaration because they would no longer be the rulers, retain their status, or continue to take their ill gotten benefits! HK protesters are the majority - as the results from the November 2019 District Council proved!
Because the HK government and CCP have both breached the Joint Declaration, HK's Constitution, they have NO legitimacy! What they are doing does not fit with HK's new social contract!
We the people of HK who are the majority have to create our own legitimacy through our social contract, protests (i.e. street democracy - we have been locked out of the Legislative Council by the ruling minority!) and participation in global movements such as BLM!
In the UK a black man from BLM carries an injured white man from the opposition to the safety of police. This is the true spirit of BLM!
Perhaps an old HK social contract was killed on 4 June 1989 with the Tiananmen Square massacre in China? This was the social contract that created HK as a feudal Chinese plutocracy; the world's most unaffordable housing; one of the largest gaps in the world between rich and poor; a dead end street for HK people who do not have a foreign passport and enough assets when the world's worst ever authoritarian regime, the CCP, fully takes over HK in 2047 or perhaps earlier!
The Earth's recent Paradigm shift, which resulted in COVID-19, has two key issues of inter-dependency and health which are linked to social contracts. COVID-19 has affected people everywhere across divisions of race, class, and gender and exposed the fault lines of inequality, disproportionately affecting those on the social and economic margins. Worldwide the correction of policing, injustice and the healing from discrimination by protests such as HK protests and BLM will in time naturally succeed!
(Twitter Laurel Chor 11 June 2020)
The earliest BLM slogan of "no justice, no peace" in a HK protest was on 11 June 2020 inside a shopping mall.
Due to HK government politicisation of COVID-19 regulations on group gatherings (maximum 8, soon max. 50), police brutality and mass arrests there are only a few small HK protests now. HK protests will increase as we get closer to Legislative Council elections on 6 September 2020.
RTHK reported 15 June 2020 'Public gathering ban now 'meaningless': experts'.
Recently on social media "Hong Kong's Joshua Wong backs Black Lives Matter.."
This HK Policeman's mocking comments against BLM of "I can't breath" and "here is not America" speaks volumes! When asked by journalists, the police said that he made "irrelevant remarks" and was ordered to be more sensitive.
Children and students are the HK protester group that faces the MOST HK government & police discrimination, brutality and injustice!
We have written numerous blogs on students and children - to see these blogs please select "students & children" from our blogs menu.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) Article 2.1 "Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status."
Our children are the future!
One of the most disturbing incidents so far in this entire HK anti-extradition protest movement was the Police decision NOT to request a Coroners Report and the immediate cremation of Miss Chan Yin-lam a 15 year old girl, a child, a good swimmer, found dead, naked in the sea! We the people of HK want answers about what happened to her!!
Illegally and unacceptably the CCP and HK government are spreading misinformation and fear amongst HK children in an attempt to manipulate and control them. The EDB does this by filling their minds with CCP propaganda, and the police arrest, intimidate, threaten, beat them or worse!
The video above of a policeman's knee to the neck of a 16 year old female child is illegal under CRC and is very disturbing! A HK policeman's knee to the neck and back is what killed a South Asian man in May 2020 (see below). A knee to the neck and back is what killed George Floyd in USA and caused 2 weeks of nationwide protests in support of BLM.
United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 25.2. "Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection."
RTHK 6 June 2020 reported 'Youngsters used as political pawns: police chief' that roughly 40% of the 8,000 arrested protesters were students!
United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has been signed and ratified by HK in 1989 and - like most UN treaties HK signs - never implemented correctly! Which is why in large part HK has been falling down global rankings as well as losing residents and its opportunities.
There is currently no legislation, no policy nor practices in HK which meets CRC expectations. There is no independent third party Children's Commissioner to ensure that CRC is being implemented correctly in HK.
CRC highlights relating to protests include (bold format added):
For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.
1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare
institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.
States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.
1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life. 2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.
1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.
1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.
1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.
1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.
2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
States Parties shall ensure that:
(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;
(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;
(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age.
In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.
CCP AND HK GOVERNMENT STOP YOUR ABUSE OF HK CHILDREN AND THEIR CRC HUMAN RIGHTS!
The lesson from BLM to all people & governments is that you must not discriminate if you want 'success'!
In the new paradigm discrimination weakens our health, inter-dependency, truth and power!
Don't discriminate against anyone if YOU don't want to be discriminated against!
HK Chinese in HK are the majority.
HK is a part of China, so HK Chinese are a linguistic and cultural minority group in China.
Under the rule of CCP, HK Chinese now face assimilation in HK in the exact same way as minorities groups in HK have faced for decades!
The only way to ensure that ALL HK people are not being discriminated against in HK by CCP and HK government is to make sure that there is a strong social contract and rule of law backed up by legislation, policies and practices against all forms of injustice including discrimination against all minorities!
Generally younger HK Chinese protesters do not discriminate - they are the backbone of the HK protest movement.
The old HK social contract was what The British Journal of Social Work wrote;
“Despite the reputation of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) as a vibrant, international centre of commerce and enterprise, the dominant Chinese culture largely ignores the position of resident, minority ethnic (ME) groups by attempting to maintain an ethnically homogenised monoculture (Ku, 2006). Serving to exclude culture, beliefs, traditions and languages of other members of society, it appears to be commensurate with certain xenophobic attitudes towards the needs of ME communities in Hong Kong (Ku et al., 2003). This has been a trend that has deepened rather than improved since the ‘handover’ period in 1997, when Hong Kong returned to China's sovereignty (Ho, 2001). Rice (2002) argues that the colonial government's reluctance to create specific legislation prohibiting racist discrimination in Hong Kong was later continued by the HKSAR government, which equally viewed it as unnecessary.” (Ref. “‘Ah Cha’! The Racial Discrimination of Pakistani Minority Communities in Hong Kong: An Analysis of Multiple, Intersecting Oppressions” Sara Ashencaen Crabtree Hung Wong. The British Journal of Social Work, Volume 43, Issue 5, 1 July 2013, Pages 945–963, https://doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcs026 ).
Despite calling it the old social contract it is fair to say that there are still many HK Chinese who practice discrimination of one form or another.
The global standard for minorities' rights is the United Nations "Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities" - another declaration that HK does not follow!
[Update] RTHK 23 June 2020 'Firms still wary of hiring ethnic minorities: study'
HK's LGBT minority are discriminated against
The early hours of 28 June 1969 marked a turning point in LGBT history: the international gay rights movement was born as minorities in this group increasingly found their voice.
There were a series of violent confrontations between Police and gay rights activists outside the Stonewall Inn, a bar that was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalised people in the gay community in the Greenwich Village section of New York. The spark for the riots was confrontational police tactics: The trouble started when the police arrived in the wee hours of June 28 to raid the mafia-run tavern on a trumped-up liquor-license charge. After officers started pushing customers and workers into police vehicles, the patrons began fighting back.
After 40 years a formal apology from the New York City Police Commissioner for the actions of Police officers at Stonewall in 1969, was formally rendered on 6 June 2019.
Of course there are parallels between the gay rights movement then, the struggles against homophobia, discrimination, and legalised oppression in the U.S.A. and many other countries. The struggle that sexual and gender diversities are engaged in goes on globally.
RTHK reported on 16 June 2020 US Supreme Court backs LGBT workplace rights. Immediately HK people responded 'Ensure workplace protection for LGBT people in HK'.
HK’s own government has thus far refused to pass human rights legislation to make discrimination against LGBT people illegal. Unlike Taiwan, the HK government has rejected calls to open any public consultation on matters relating to same sex marriage. Research shows that the HK Government is out of step with public opinion.
Significant at this time is the common fight that exists amongst all minorities for equality and justice, for fair treatment under the law. Thus “Black Lives Matter” is the latest phenomena in the pushback against repressive policing and institutionalised discrimination.
An extremity of discrimination in Hong Kong that shames the world. Two HK Chinese women verbally attack a publicly elected known gay legislative councilor.
There is discrimination in HK against South Asians!
Illegally excluded from ICCPR into HKSAR legislation “HK Bill of Rights Ordinance” (HKBORO) is ICCPR Article 20 “1. Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law. 2. Any advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by law.”
Joint Submission by HKSAR NGO’s UN CERD May 2018 (quote): “145. One newspaper in particular is responsible for generating most of the reports on supposed “South Asian crime”; reports on crimes committed by ethnic minorities are sensationalized with the suspects’ race highlighted in the headings, which reinforced public perceptions of ethnic minorities. Yet this news outlet was thanked by name by the then Chief Executive and a few legislators for their extensive work on this issue. The organization Justice Centre Hong Kong, after several access to information requests, found that the volume of these articles far exceeded actual crime levels. Around this time, the organization also found that the Immigration Department likewise released more press releases regarding refugees and changed its official terminology in public documents from, “non-refoulement claimants” to “Non-ethnic Chinese Illegal Immigrants” (NECII). Furthermore, a public poll found that only 4.7% of those surveyed held favorable views towards refugees and asylum seekers.” (Ref. http://www.soco.org.hk/publication/press_release/crec/2018/CERD%20joint%20submission%202018.pdf ).
The victim was a Sikh man of Indian nationality, a Hong Kong (HK) Permanent Resident - so he was a HK citizen, an Ethnic Minority. He was not protesting. For respect we will call him "Mr. Singh". R.I.P. Love and light!
Tragically the Indian Sikh Mr. Singh's death in HK police custody mirrored the killing in police custody of African American George Floyd, which caused more than 2 weeks of US nationwide mass protests and murder charges against 4 white policemen.
The primary reason for Mr. Singh's death lies in the fact that HK is now an authoritarian regime directly under the control of the CCP. He was brutalized by the police and denied medical attention.
In HK we do NOT have guaranteed human rights and democratic processes under our HK Constitution, the Joint Declaration. Under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 21.3 it says "the will of the people is the authority of the government." The will of the CCP backed up by police brutality is the authority of the current illegitimate HK government!
The HK police saw the opportunity to kill Mr. Singh, an oppressed ethnic minority, as a slapdown and reminder to HK ethnic minorities not to stick their heads up, not to protest and to remain silent.
The HK policemen knew they would get away with the murder of Mr. Singh!
Why has there been NO protests in Hong Kong (HK) against Mr. Singh's murder? WTPOHK believe that the primary reason for there being no protest is that very few people are protesting because of the HK Police strategy of brutality and mass arrests during the current COVID-19 gathering restrictions. No Police approvals ("letters of no objection") have been given for protests since COVID-19 gathering restrictions were first imposed.
HK NEEDS AN INDEPENDENT COMMISSION OF INQUIRY (COI) INTO HK POLICE - THIS MUST INCLUDE THE DEATH IN POLICE CUSTODY OF THE SIKH INDIAN MAN IDENTIFIED IN THIS BLOG!
Police are trying to divide and conquer HK protesters and ethnic minorities
We dismiss outright the notion that racial discrimination by HK Chinese against non-Chinese is the primary reason that nobody is protesting Mr Singh's death. It is true that HK has massive problems of discrimination - HK is a feudal plutocracy ruled by the CCP and HK elites who first discriminate in all ways against other Chinese!
Our first hand experience is that the Police have been trying to divide and conquer the protesters and minorities to weaken both - a classic CCP trick!
The events of Saturday 20 October 2019 in Tsim Sha Tsui including at Kowloon Mosque (part 1 and part 2) illustrates that minorities and protesters are closer than ever, and more determined. A police water cannon truck deliberately stopped and then sprayed blue dye at the Kowloon Mosque, a religious building of the Muslim faith, as well as at Journalists and other non-protesters. HK protesters helped the ethnic minority community to cleanup the Kowloon Mosque.
This protest was only 4 days after Civil Human Rights Front Convenor Jimmy Sham, an LGBT activist, was attacked by four assailants and hospitalised. Without presenting any evidence the police said the assailants were South Asian!
BLM has the same broken social contract roots as HK protests!
The HK protests include 2014 Occupy Umbrella movement, the proposed 2019 extradited legislation to China, 2020 national security law forced upon HK by the CCP, BLM and minorities groups in HK demanding their human rights against systemic discrimination.
Following the murder by a white policeman of African American George Floyd, and just 2 weeks of public protests across America, State and city governments admitted their faults, bent their knees and accepted that Black lives matter! This was the start of healing their nation - of correcting the errors in their social contract.
Politicians and Police apologized to US citizens and started to make significant changes - including charging officers for George Floyd's death, defunding police, closing police departments, reforming policing practices, etc. This inspite of the authoritarian rhetoric and actions of US President Donald Trump and US Attorney General William Barr.
By comparison, in HK under the authoritarian CCP's control, after 12 months of massive mostly peaceful HK public protests we have only ONE of the HK protesters' 5 demands - the withdrawal of the proposed extradition legislation - acted upon by HK Chief Executive Carrie Lam!
Repeatedly HK protesters and international bodies have called for an independent Commission of Inquiry (COI) into HK police during HK protests.
With NPC recently passing a HK National Security Law CCP has removed all pretense of abiding by the international norms and treaties including the Joint Declaration, HK's Constitution, and instead is busy shredding it! There are critical voices saying that the new National Security law is more draconian than the extradition legislation already rejected by the people of HK! It violates our human rights including ICCPR.
A HKer, such as the 16 year old child in the video above, in police custody with a policeman's knee on her neck and back is in the same broken social contract situation as African American George Floyd who died in police custody!!
Get your knee off our necks!
Black Lives Matter (BLM)
African Americans first endured slavery and discrimination roughly 400 years ago in USA. The horror and human tragedy for everyone of slavery and the genocide of Native American Indians haunts and is destroying the US - and now finally Americans as a community in unity are healing!
The rise of BLM is part of the new paradigm bought on by coronavirus COVID-19.
The international human rights movement BLM has been around since 2013 and was formed after the tragic death of teenager Trayvon Martin in 2012.
Recently USA-wide, and then worldwide, protests have erupted after the tragic murder of 46 year old African American male George Floyd while in police custody. Mr. Floyd was murdered by a white policeman who put his knee on Floyd's back and neck for 8 minutes 46 seconds while three officers looked on and did not intervene - making them complicit in his death. All four ex-Policemen have since been arrested and charged.
The US is a highly developed democracy with Presidential elections in November 2020. America as a democracy is self-correcting every four years.
Trevor Noah - host of the Daily Show
The host of the very popular US TV program "Daily Show" is Trevor Noah, an insightful comedian born and raised in a multi-racial family in South Africa. In his video "George Floyd and the dominos of racial injustice" Trevor said:
The domino effect is how each event (Amy Cooper, George Floyd, Ahmaud Arbery, etc.) are somehow linked to others and each domino knocks against the other and in the end they create a giant wave.
The backdrop is coronavirus, lockdowns, stay at home, be good, etc. Then we collectively started to think and understand what is really happening around us.
Amy Cooper (see video above) was perfectly playing the part of a white supremacist female, how to use her whiteness against his blackness, who knowing her relationship with the police and her complaint of "an African American man is threatening my life" knows what she can get away with! We have seen this before - and likely she has done this before!
In the George Floyd case the white police knew they could kill him and get away with it - so they killed him. The officer seemed so calm killing him with his knee to Floyd's back and neck. This is like a slap down - keeping the blacks in their place. This is the knee that has always been on the neck of the black man for 400 years! This time the murder of an African American in police custody was on video, with public witnesses - and America and the world witnessed and understood the offense and horror to all humanity! Instantly everyone condemned what they saw.
The social contract question was triggered by the riots and looting that occurred after Mr Floyd's death. What is society? it is a contract that we sign as human beings - we agree as a group in society on our common ideals, rules and practices that are going to define us. The contract is only as strong as the people who are abiding by it. If you are a black person in a bad part of America and not having a good time, what is your interest in maintaining the contract? There are those who, no matter what happens, honour the contract. How time and again those who honour the contract see that no matter what they do, society is NOT honouring its contract to them! What part of the contract is it that you see the life being squeezed out of George Floyd or the people who gunned down Ahmaud Arbery go free? There is NO contract if the law and people in power do not uphold their end of the contract! The people at the top must be the most accountable. Malcolm Gladwell's "Principles of Legitimacy": 1) We have to agree on Principles; 2) We have to agree who enforces the Principles and will do so fairly; 3) We have to agree that everyone in society has to be treated fairly according to those principles. If you are a black American you can see during coronavirus that your Principles are being de-legitimized! When you are 'a have' or 'a have-not' you see the world in very different ways. A lot of times people say to the have-nots, this is not the way. If you see a black person looting and you have anger at what she/he is doing, then think how it feels for a black person everyday to watch themselves being looted: because this is what is fundamentally happening everyday in black America. Police in America are looting black bodies. What does that do to you as a society? And it's only happening to you because of your skin colour. The police show the value of the lives of people in their community. The people know how to deal with the police. In America if you killed a white body it's a whole lot different justice compared to if you killed a black body in a black neighbourhood. If you were one of the blacks, how would you feel having your social contract ripped up everyday? Would you loot? That's the question.
Systemic discrimination and injustice in HK by Chinese elites and CCP
HK is a feudal Chinese plutocracy in which the ruling minority, the HK elite 'haves', widely use discrimination and coercion against the 'have-nots', minorities groups and other outsiders, to make sure that they retain their status and wealth.
Six HK Chinese families control the largest real estate developers that own at least 50% of HK's wealth!
Like CCP, HK does not meet its obligations to most of its international treaties including UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights, ICCPR, ICESCR, CERD, CRC, CAT, etc.
In the eyes of CCP it is the boss, the HK elites ('haves') are their servants; the majority of HK people ('have-nots') are their slaves to do with as they wish!
HK has one of the worst wealth gaps between rich and poor in the world.
HK has one of the most unaffordable housing markets in the world.
The most prevalent discrimination in HK is what the HK Chinese elites inflict upon the rest of HK's Chinese population - these are the have-nots, the majority, HK's protesters.
District Councils were castrated with most functions taken over by the HK government and only then were they allowed to have universal and equal suffrage! The District Council is therefore the ONLY body in HK which is correctly elected and functioning under international law! Their decisions and actions matter as they carry full legal weight whilst the current Legislative Council is illegitimate.
HK is scheduled to have "democratic" elections on 6 September 2020 for its Legislative Council (LegCo).
However, today and since 1 July 1997 when HK's sovereignty returned to China, LegCo remains ILLEGITIMATE because it does NOT conform to UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights article 21.3 "The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures."
LegCo's Functional Constituency (FC) results in unequal suffrage! LegCo must now be immediately disbanded and reformed without FC after September 2020 elections!
The fastest & most effective way to make civil changes is by non-violent civil conflict!
Source: Summary from video below by International Center on Nonviolent Conflict.
Every civil resistance movement in history is based on people no longer giving their "consent" to a Monolithic power structure.
Fundamental to "civil resistance" is how people view power in their societies.
Political concepts & theory suggests there are primarily two different power structures being "Monolithic" or "Pluralistic."
The "Monolithic" power structure:
The Ruler & Elites make all the decisions & are at the top of command
The Ruler & Elites depend on the obedience & goodwill of the masses of people to remain in power
The Ruler & Elites view their power as being durable, self-perpetuating & not easily destroyed
Weakens the masses of people - making the masses of people easier to "control." This is a form of "structural violence" in which peoples' UN Human Rights are violated, etc.
It is a "consent" based structure of power - if the masses of people do not give their "consent" the Ruler & Elites can not rule!
If masses of people do not obey then the Monolithic structure collapses!
Monolithic structures are weaker than Pluralistic structures
Today most power structures are Monolithic
The "Pluralistic" power structure:
The masses of people make all decisions
Depends on the goodwill of the masses of people
Power is "dispersed" throughout society - in which different groups in different situations will exert their power within the masses of people
The masses of people view their power as being "fragile" and "fluid" relying upon the cooperation of a multitude of institutions & individuals
Most people's misunderstandings of "civil resistance" stems from:
Media coverage that is primarily controlled by ruling Elites vs. the masses of people on the streets (this dynamic is changing with mass media & internet)
History that focuses on violent conflict & wars - leaving people to believe that armed struggle is the only way to fight oppression!
HK protests must remain peaceful and non-violent, even in the light of provocation!
HK people are UN Observers and Defenders of their human rights including the right to peacefully protest - they are NOT "rioters" or "terrorists"!